You have just had a puppy and you want to know what foods he should absolutely not have access to? Or your dog rummaged through the trash and came across some table scraps and you want to know the dangers? Find a list of all the deadly dangers lurking in the kitchen as well as the main symptoms.
It is well known that chocolate is very toxic to domestic carnivores. It contains théobromine, a methylxanthine responsible for digestive disorders (hypersalivation, vomiting, diarrhoea), cardiac disorders (rhythm disorders, abnormal contractions) and nervous disorders (agitation, tremors). In severe cases, the dog may have convulsions and then slip into a coma and die. These symptoms may appear within 12 hours of ingestion.
Dark chocolate is richer in theobromine than milk chocolate or cocoa powder. White chocolate, on the other hand, has no toxicity compared to theobromine; but it can still cause digestive problems because it is high in fat.
As an indication, a bar of 200 grams of dark chocolate can kill a small breed dog.
If your dog has eaten chocolate, here is a simple tool to check the risks: chocolate toxicity calculator for dogs or consult our article dedicated to chocolate poisoning.
There is no antidote to theobromine but the veterinarian can put in place a symptomatic treatment which is all the more effective if it is put in place quickly.
Theobromine is difficult to eliminate by the dog’s body, which explains why the monitoring by the veterinarian of the poisoned animal is often long.
coffee and tea
The caffeine is, like chocolate theobromine, a methylxanthine toxic to dogs. The symptoms will be similar to those of chocolate but are often much faster to appear. The dog may have digestive, cardiac and neurological disorders that can be fatal.
Here again, there is no antidote, so an eliminatory and symptomatic treatment must be given as soon as possible.
The raw potato
The raw potato is toxic because it contains an alkaloid, the solaninewhich is notably responsible for digestive, nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders that can be fatal.
The green skin and sprouted potatoes are the most poisonous parts.
Garlic, onion, shallot
These bulbs should not be fed to animals, either raw or cooked, due to the compounds organosulfur they contain and which have a toxic action on red blood cells in addition to causing digestive and general disorders.
This intoxication can require very heavy care, in particular a blood transfusion in the most serious cases.
The person is the poisonous substance found in the fruit, pit and plant of the avocado. The mechanism of action is not very well known, as are the toxic doses.
In dogs and cats, avocado causes digestive (anorexia, vomiting, lethargy) and cardiorespiratory (tachypnea, tachycardia, dyspnea, respiratory distress) disorders.
The prognosis is engaged in the presence of symptoms and there is no antidote.
The poison as well as the mechanism of action are unknown for the moment but the grape in all its forms may be toxic in certain animals. Raisins are 10 times more toxic and a handful can endanger a dog’s life.
In the hours following ingestion, the dog may experience digestive disorders and its condition may rapidly worsen within 24 hours towards kidney damage.
Management at this time is vital to restore renal function as well as possible.
This poisoning can be of food origin with table salt or the ingestion of very salty foods (raw ham, smoked salmon, peanuts) but can also occur when ingesting regenerating salt, de-icing salt, salt dough, sea water, salt pool water, etc.
The quantities ingested can be significant due to the high palatability of salt. In terms of quantity, a single tablespoon of salt can be fatal for a dog weighing less than 10kg.
The disorders are digestive (thirst, hypersalivation, vomiting, diarrhea), nervous (agitation, prostration, coma, tremors, convulsions, ataxia). Salt also causes severe dehydration and cerebral edema which can be fatal.
Strictly speaking, there is no antidote, but medical techniques can reduce the concentration of sodium in the blood.
The poison in question is unknown, but Macadamia nuts cause non-specific disorders such as vomiting and abdominal pain, general weakness, tremors and sometimes locomotor disorders.
In general, the evolution is good in 24 to 48 hours thanks to symptomatic treatment.
Poisoning is most frequently observed after accidental ingestion during walks or in the garden.
Toxicity varies depending on the mushroom ingested. Generally speaking, mushrooms that cause trouble in less than 6 hours are less toxic than those with a long latency. All toxic mushrooms are accompanied by violent digestive disorders (gastroenteritis, hypersalivation), sometimes by cardiorespiratory and neurological disorders (agitation, hallucinations, aggressiveness) which can lead to the animal’s coma or even death. Certain fungi can also cause acute kidney and liver failure.
When you notice that your companion has eaten a mushroom, it is best to immediately make him vomit to a veterinarian who can give preventive or even curative treatment.
Chewing gums and sweets
Xylitol is a molecule that is used as a sweetener in the confectionery industry (cookies, candies, chewing gum).
It causes early digestive disorders which can be accompanied by hypoglycaemia which can plunge the animal into a coma. With massive ingestions, there is a risk of liver damage.
Digestive decontamination and symptomatic treatment of hypoglycaemia must be implemented as soon as possible following the poisoning.
Mycotoxins form on rotting food. The category of tremorigenic mycotoxins are likely to thrive on foods that contain carbohydrates and dairy products.
Be careful if you have a compost, make sure that your animal cannot access it! The other main source of poisoning are the moldy nuts at the foot of the walnut tree.
Clinically, the animal presents digestive disorders but especially neurological: tremors, ataxia and convulsions at the end of evolution.
Ethanol is found in alcoholic beverages but also as a product of the fermentation of bread dough.
The disorders are of a digestive order (vomiting or even meteorism, flatulence and abdominal pain when yeast is ingested) and neurological (agitation, disorientation, locomotor disorders, coma).
As with many poisonings, you must act quickly by taking your animal to the veterinarian so that the latter takes care of it as well as possible.
In case of ingestion of one of these foods or if you have the slightest doubt, do not hesitate to call your veterinarian who will give you the instructions for the optimal care of your animal!